The main reasons for subsidence in megacities such as Jakarta are groundwater extraction related to urbanization and population growth, and steadily rising sea levels triggered by climate change. In addition, coastal cities often suffer from greater natural land erosion because they are built on soft soils such as clay and peat.
Besides the risk to humans, land subsidence also causes major economic losses such as structural damage and high maintenance costs for roads, railways, dikes, pipelines, and buildings.
Until now, monitoring megacities with GNSS monitoring was almost impossible due to the large distances between the base, which has to be located outside the cities on terrain not affected by subsidence, and the rovers inside the city. Thanks to HAPPY MONITORING, accurate subsidence results can now be provided throughout the city mm. These accurate elevation changes, along with many other measurements from geotechnical sensors, provide the experts with the basis for their assessments and help governments make more reliable long-term decisions.